This is the "Harvard style" page of the "Harvard style citations" guide.
Alternate Page for Screenreader Users
Skip to Page Navigation
Skip to Page Content
The University of the South Pacific

Harvard style citations   Tags: citations, referencing  

A guide for using the Harvard style of referencing, including in-text citations and writing the reference list.
Last Updated: Aug 9, 2016 URL: Print Guide RSS Updates

Harvard style Print Page

Is there a print edition for Harvard Style?

No publisher or school owns or manages Harvard style, so unfortunately, there is no official handbook. If your instructor does not give you a prefered template for Harvard style, try some of these websites:

Citing using Harvard Style from Cardiff University UK 

Harvard Citation Style Libguide from University of Western Australia

Harvard AGPS Referencing Guide from  University of Southern Queensland

Remember to BE CONSISTENT in your formatting. Examples in the above guides may use underlines or punctuation in different ways, and the same Harvard Style citation may have slight differences from what you see in this guide.

If the sample citation for an online source says "Retrieved from {URL}" in one example and you've used "available from [URL]" in your reference list, change them so they are all the same phrase. You have more freedom in formatting your citations with Harvard Style than you do with APA or MLA, so choose the one way you want to use punctuation and stick with it!


Other Reference books on Referencing

Cover Art
Avoiding plagiarism : write better papers in APA, Chicago, and Harvard citation styles - Ken K. Wong
Call Number: PN 167 .W66 2011
Publication Date: 2011
Covers APA, Chicago and Harvard styles. In library use only.

Cover Art
Writing the Research Paper : a handbook - Anthony C. Winkler; Jo Ray McCuen-Metherell
Call Number: REF LB 2369 .W55 2012
Publication Date: 2011
Covers APA, MLA and Chicago styles. In library use only.



Use EndNote to create citations and bibliographies in various formats, including MLA, APA and Harvard.

Always check the EndNote citation to make sure it is accurate.


Harvard style citations

The Harvard Citation Style, also known as author-date style or parenthetical referencing, is a popular alternative to the MLA or APA styles. Despite the name, Harvard University does not manage, own, or endorse this style.

See our LibGuides on APA style and MLA style if you need information on those formats.

Use the blue tabs above to see Harvard citation formats for different kinds of sources, as well as for creating citations in the text of your paper.

Overview of how Harvard style citations are constructed

The Harvard citation format allows the person reading your paper to know what sources you used and where to locate these sources. In general, you need to cite the author, year of publication, title, and publishing data.

The basic format looks like this:

Citing a journal article:

Author's last name, first intial. Year of Publication. Title of article. Title of journal.  [Online] Volume number (issue number), Page numbers. Retrieved from URL of the article or name of database. [Access date].


Zabrodska, K., & Kveton, P. 2013. Prevalence and Forms of Workplace Bullying Among University Employees. Employee Responsibilities & Rights Journal. [Online] 25 (2), pp. 89-108. Retrieved from Business Source Premier, EBSCOhost [accessed 31 August 2013].

Citing a book:

Author's last name, first intial. Year of Publication. Title of book. Place of publication, publisher.


Mead, M. 1943. Coming of age in Samoa : a study of adolescence and sex in primitive societies. Harmondsworth, Middlesex, Penguin Books.

Please see the tabs at the top of this guide for in-depth examples of citing reference works, electronic information, government documents, etc.


General Information

Alphabetize your reference list by the first word of the citation (usually the author's last name).      

Author/Editor : if there is an editor, always put (ed.) after the name.  

Be consistent! Since there's no one rule manual for Harvard Style, you have a bit more choice regarding spacing, punctuation, italics vs. underlining, etc. if your instructor has not given you a template. Format your citations the same way throughout your paper and reference list.

Only capitalize the first word of the document title. 

Double space all of the citations on your reference page.

For 2-3 authors: Jones, B., Smith, J., & Brown, P.

For more than 3 authors: you may list them all, or list only the first author with the phrase "Et al." (Latin for "and others"): 

Sadava, D. et al. 2011. Life, the science of biology. 9th ed. Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates.

Internet Sources are difficult to cite because the information available is not consistent. When creating your citation, follow the citation guidelines and use as much information as you have.

Italicize the title of the book, magazine or journal.

If your reference list has multiple works by the same author(s), list them in order of publication date, earliest first, NOT alphabetically by title:

Thaman, R. 1975. The Tongan agriculture system : with special emphasis on plant assemblages. Los Angeles: University of California.

Thaman, R. 1989. Agrodeforestation and the neglect of trees : threat to the well-being of Pacific societies. Noumea, New Caledonia : SPC.

No Date: Use n.d. (no date) when a publication date is not available.

Abbreviate a page number range (like a chapter in an edited book) as pp. Examples:  pp. 54-60 or pp. 90, 95-103. Use a single p. for a single page (for newspaper articles, etc.) Example: p.12

URL: for ease of formating, break a URL that goes to another line after a slash, or before a period.

Vol., issue, and pages may not always be available on Internet sources.  If they are not used, the name of the journal is all that can be provided in the reference list.



Not citing your resources can result in accusations of plagiarism. USP's policy on academic honesty and plagiarism can be found here (opens as PDF):

3.4.2 Academic Honesty: Policies & Procedures (for USP Students)

This slideshow by Angela Jowitt of USP's Alafua Campus library will give you an overview of how to avoid plagiarism by properly citing your sources.


Books on referencing available to check out

Cover Art
The Complete Guide to Referencing and Avoiding Plagarism - Colin Neville
Call Number: PN 171 .F56 N48 2007
Publication Date: 2007
Covers APA, MLA and Harvard styles.

Cover Art
Doing Honest Work in College How to Prepare Citations, Avoid Plagiarism, and Achieve Real Academic Success - Charles Lipson
Call Number: PN 171 .F56 L56 2004
Publication Date: 2004
Covers Chicago, MLA, and APA styles.

A student's guide to bibliographies and referencing - Rajni Chand
Call Number: PN 171 .F56 C43 2009
Publication Date: 2009
Provides examples of MLA and Harvard styles.

Additional Resources

  • Cite this for me
    Generates your reference list in APA, MLA, Chicago, Vancouver, or Harvard referencing styles.
Disclaimer & Copyright l Contact Us l 
© Copyright 2004 - 2013. All Rights Reserved.
The University of the South Pacific
Laucala Campus, Suva, Fiji
Tel: +679 323 1000

Loading  Loading...