Need the print edition of the APA handbook?
Reference books on Writing Research Papers
Use EndNote to create citations and bibliographies in various formats, including MLA, APA and Harvard.
Always check the EndNote citation to make sure it is accurate.
The APA Citation Style is often used for classes in the sciences and health fields.
Use the blue tabs above to see APA citation formats for different kinds of sources, as well as for creating citations in the text of your paper. These formats are from the APA Publication Manual 6th edition.
DOI numbers are now required for APA citations of electronic information (if a DOI is available). For more information on how to find a DOI number, follow link below for an APA tutorial:
Overview of how APA citations are constructed
The APA citation format allows the person reading your paper to know what sources you used and where to locate these sources. In general, you need to cite the author, year of publication, title, and publishing data.
The basic format looks like this:
Citing a journal article:
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author C. C. (year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, xx, pp-pp. doi: xx.xxxxxxxxxx
Zabrodska, K., & Kveton, P. (2013). Prevalence and forms of workplace bullying among university employees. Employee Responsibilities & Rights Journal, 25(2), 89-108. doi:10.1007/s10672-012-9210-x
Citing a book:
Author, A. A. (year). Title of work. Location: Publisher.
Schumacher, E. F. (1989). Small is beautiful: Economics as if people mattered. New York: Perennial Library.
Please see the tabs at the top of this guide for in-depth examples of citing reference works, electronic information, government documents, etc.
Articles from Databases: In general, when you cite an article from a database, the format is the same as for a print article. APA rules ask for the URL of the journal, magazine, or newspaper home page, but USP professors may prefer the name of the database where you retrieved the article. In addition, APA rules do not require a retrieval date for electronic sources, unless they are likely to change. Again, USP professors may want to see a date, so the format is included here. Check with your professor.
Alphabetize your reference list by the first word of the citation (usually the author's last name).
Double space all of the citations on your reference page.
Indent the second & following lines of the citation 5-7 spaces.
For 2-7 authors: Wingert, P., Smith, J., & Brown, P.
For more than 7 authors: List the first six authors, then put an ellipses (. . .) before the final author’s name.
Only capitalize the first word of the document title. If there is a colon in the title, capitalize the first word after the colon.
Italicize the title of the magazine or journal. Also italicize the volume number - but do not italicize the issue number.
Do not include a period after the URL.
Books on referencing available to check out
Not citing your resources can result in accusations of plagiarism. USP's policy on academic honesty and plagiarism can be found here (opens as PDF):
This slideshow by Angela Jowitt of USP's Alafua Campus library will give you an overview of how to avoid plagiarism by properly citing your sources.